Literary letters and letter-prayersx

Compositions with a historical background & Royal praise poetryx

Literary letters and letter-prayersx

Hymns and cult songsx

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The rulers of Lagac -- a composite transliteration
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1 - ejer a-ma-ru ba-ùr-ra-ta
2 - ù kur-ra-ke4 ba-an-jar-ra-ta
3 - nam-lú-ùlù da-re-ec i-ak-a-ba
4 - numun nam-lú-ùlù im-mi-in-taka4-a-ba
5 - ùj saj gíg-ga ní-bi-a im-mi-in-íl-la-a-ba
6 - ud an-né (d)en-líl-le
7 - nam-lú-ùlù mu-bi sa4-a-ta
8 - ù nam-énsí in-jar-ra-ta
9 - nam-lugal aga iri-àm
10 - an-ta nu-ub-ta-an-è-a-ba
11 - (d)nin-jír-su al mar
12 - dusu apin-e zi-cag4-jál kalam-ma
13 - ùj sig10-ga cár-a nu-jar-re-ec-a-ba
14 - ud-ba lú-tur dàn-dàn-na-ka
15 - mu 100 ì-ak
16 - nam-bùlùj-já-ni-ta mu 100 bí-in-ak
17 - kíj-gi4-a li-bí-íb-gi4-gi4
18 - ì-tur ì-tur-tur ì-jál ama-a-ni
19 - udu-a-ni tùr-re im-ma-an-ri-ri
20 - ud-ba a lagac(ki)
21 - jír-su(ki) cag4-jar ì-jál-àm
22 - íd nu-un-dun-na-àm
23 - ég pa5-re cu-luh nu-ak-àm
24 - a-gàr gal-gal-e X (X)-na nu-un-X
25 - gán-né gáná zid-dè a hé-jál-la nu-un-dé
26 - nam-lú-ùlù igi-bi im cèj-cèj-já in-bar
27 - (d)ézíná ce gu-nu nu-ub-ta-an-mú
28 - ab-sín-na ka-bi nu-un-du8
29 - nu-mu-un-íl
30 - an-edin-na nu-un-ur11-ru
31 - nu-mu-un-íl
32 - kur-kur ùj lu-a dijir-re-ne-er
33 - ulucin kurun
34 - kurun dùg X X
35 - nu-mu-un-ne-éb-bal-bal
36 - a-cag4 gal apin-ta
37 - nu-mu-un-ne-eb-ur11-ru
48 - íd
49 - a-cag4-bi
50 - íd dun-ne-dè
51 - ég pa5-re cu-luh ak-dè
52 - a-gàr gal-gal-e X
53 - gán-né gáná zid-dè im-
54 - al mar dusu apin-e
55 - zi-cag4-jál kalam-ma
56 - ùj-cè im-ta-an-jar-re-ec
57 - ud-bi-a ce èd-dè-da
58 - jéctúg-ga-a-ni na-an-gub
59 - ki-sikil-cè igi-ni-cè ba-ci-in-gub-ba-ac
60 - ud ji6-bi-ta ki-ulutim-bi-cè
61 - saj-ba ba-ci-in-íl
62 - (d)ézíná ce-numun-bi mu-mú-a
63 - ki-a bí-in-za-za-ac im-mi-ni-in-èd-dè-ec
64 - (d)ézíná ce gu-nu mu-mú-a
65 - KU -ec
66 - -in-íl
67 - DU
99 - mu X ì-ak
100 - igi huc X X
101 - PU mu-un-dun
102 - mu 760 ì-ak
103 - en-á-ki-gal-la-gub-ba
104 - dijir-ra-ni (d)X
105 - nijin6(ki)-jic-tuku-àm mu-un-dun
106 - mu 100 ì-ak
107 - ud-ba mu sar nu-me-a X
108 - íd nu-un-dun dusu nu-un-íl
109 - ud-bi-a á UR lugal
110 - ùj jic tag-ga kug-sig17
111 - èd-dè-ra huc-na huc-a
112 - ba-ni-in-jar
113 - X tag-ga kabar zid-dè
114 - kalam-cè im-ta-an-è
115 - a suhur ab-ba abrig UR-ra
116 - saj-éc mu-ni-rig7
117 - en-(d)nin-jír-su-ki-áj
118 - dumu en-á-ki-gal-la-gub-ba
119 - mu 130120 ì-ak
120 - en-(d)en-líl-le-ki-áj
121 - dumu en-(d)nin-jír-su-ki-áj
122 - mu 1800 ì-ak
123 - ur-(d)ba-ú dumu en-(d)en-líl-le-ki-áj
124 - mu 900 ì-ak
125 - á-gal dijir-ra-ni (d)ig-alim
126 - mu 660 ì-ak
127 - KU-e dumu á-gal-la-ke4
128 - mu 100 ì-ak
129 - ama-alim dumu KU-e
130 - mu 600 ì-ak
131 - da-an-X
132 - mu X ì-ak
133 - X
134 - mu X ì-ak
135 - A X
136 - mu X ì-ak
137 - GAN
138 - UN
141 - mu-un-dun
142 - mu X ì-ak
145 - mah
146 - pìrìj-gin7-jen
147 - pìrìj ka lugal-ka
148 - gáná-hi-li-an-na TE-X
149 - (d)nance-pàd-da mu-un-dun
150 - a-gàr gal-gal 1(AC)-e
151 - pa5 a dug4-ga AMAR.TI.AN mu-un-dun
152 - mu 0 ì-ak
153 - ur-(d)nance dumu X X-ma-ke4
154 - é-sirara6 é cag4 húl-la-ni
155 - nijin6(ki) iri ki áj-já-ni mu-dù-a
156 - mu 1080 ì-ak
157 - an-né-túm dumu ur-(d)nance-ke4
158 - ki alim-ma-na dijir-re-e-ne
159 - mu-un-gub-ba saj-tùn (d)en-líl gal DE
160 - dijir-ra-ni (d)cul-utul10
161 - mu 690 ì-ak
162 - NE dumu an-né-túm
163 - mu X 60 ì-ak
164 - en-èn-tar-zid dijir-ra-ni (d)mèc-an-DU
165 - numun ud re-a iri-da mú-a
166 - mu 990 ì-ak
167 - X-en-da-in-si dumu en-èn-tar-zid
168 - ur-mah-bàn-da tab-ta-kù-jál
169 - mu-un-dun dijir-a-ni (d)mèc-an-DU
170 - lugal-a-ni (d)nin-jír-su
171 - é-a-ni dù-da mu-un-na-dug4
172 - mu 960 ì-ak
173 - en-(d)en-líl-le-su mu 600 ì-ak
174 - en-X-X dumu en-(d)en-líl-le-su
175 - dijir-ra-ni (d)nin-a-zu mu 660 ì-ak
176 - -du8 mu 1110 ì-ak
177 - puzur4-(d)nin-líl mu X cu-ci 1 ì-ak
178 - en-(d)mèc-an-DU dumu puzur4-(d)nin-líl-lá
179 - dijir-ra-ni AN mu cu-ci ì-ak
180 - da-du dumu en-(d)mèc-an-DU mu 160 ì-ak
181 - túg-gur dumu da-du mu 160 ì-ak
182 - LA X mu 10 ì-ak
183 - puzur4-(d)ma-ma dub-sar (d)nin-ki
184 - dijir-ra-ni (d)za-za-ru mu X ì-ak
185 - LAM.KU-níj-gen6-na cag4-tam puzur4-(d)ma-ma
186 - bàd jír-su(ki) AC-a-ni
187 - é-gal ti-ra-ác ki lagac(ki) mu-dù-a
188 - mu 80 ì-ak
189 - hé-en-jál dumu LAM.KU-níj-gen6-na
190 - dijir-ra-ni (d)pa4-bil-saj mu 140 ì-ak
191 - dumu hé-en-jál mu 144 ì-ak
192 - ur-(d)nin-mar-ki-ka dub-sar um-mi-a
193 - X X KAL saj dúr-ra dijir-ra-ni (d)ha-ìà (d)nisaba
194 - mu X 0 ì-ak
195 - ur-(d)nin-jír-su dumu ur-(d)nin-mar-ki-ka mu X cu-ci ì-ak
196 - ur-(d)ba-ú dub-sar ur-(d)nin-jír-su-ka X
197 - X unken-na mu X 0 ì-ak
198 - gù-dé-a cec-bàn-da ur-(d)ba-ú-ka
199 - dumu ama-na dumu ad-da nu-me-a mu X ì-ak
200 - é-dub-ba sar-ra (d)nisaba zà-mí
1-16 - After the flood had swept over and brought about the destruction of the countries; when mankind was made to endure, and the seed of mankind was preserved and the black-headed people all rose; when An and Enlil called the name of mankind and established rulership, but kingship and the crown of the city had not yet come out from heaven, and Ningirsu had not yet established for the multitude of well-guarded (?) people the pickaxe, the spade, the earth basket and the plough, which mean life for the Land -- in those days, the carefree youth of man lasted for 100 years and, following his upbringing, he lasted for another 100 years.
17-31 - However, he did not do any work. He became smaller and smaller, ; his sheep died (?) in the sheepfold. In those days, because the water of Lagac was held back, there was famine in Girsu. Canals were not dug, the levees and ditches were not cleaned. The large arable tracts were not , there was no water to irrigate abundantly all the cultivated fields: the people relied on rain; Ezina did not make dappled barley grow, furrows were not yet opened, they bore no yield; the high plain was not tilled, it bore no yield.
32-49 - None of the countries with numerous people libated emmer beer, liquor, , sweet liquor or for the gods. They did not till large fields for them with the plough. ... the canal. its (?) fields.
50-65 - In order to dig canals, to clean the levees and ditches, to the large arable tracts, to all the cultivated fields, he established for the people the pickaxe, the spade, the earth basket, and the plough, which mean life for the Land. Then he turned his attention to making barley sprout. He made the people stand before the maiden, and they raised their heads day and night, at the appointed times. Before Ezina who makes the seeds grow, they prostrated themselves and she made them grow (?). Before (?) Ezina who makes the dappled barley grow, they ...
99-102 - acted for years. dug the canal , he acted for 2760 years.
103-124 - En-akigalaguba: his personal god was , he dug the canal Nigin-gic-tukuam, he acted for 1200 years. In those days there was no writing, , canals were not dug, earth baskets were not carried. In those days, , the people offerings of refined gold ... a good shepherd rose over the Land; he gave them (?) as a gift. En-, the son of En-akigalaguba: he acted for 1320 years. En-, the son of En-: he acted for 1800 years. Ur- the son of En-: he acted for 900 years.
125-130 - A-gal: his personal god was Ig-alim, he acted for 660 years. Kue (?), the son of A-gal: he acted for 1200 years. Ama-alim, son of Kue (?): , he acted for 600 years.
131-142 - ...
143-163 - ... he dug the Mah canal, the canal, the Piriggin-gen canal, the canal, the Pirig canal at the mouth of the Lugal canal, the Gana-hili-ana canal, the canal, and the -pada canal. To care, single-handedly, for the great arable lands, he dug irrigation ditches and , he acted for 2220 years. Ur-, the son of , who built the E-Sirara, her temple of happiness and Nigin, her beloved city, acted for 1080 years. -tum, the son of Ur-, in whose place the gods stood, who the land register of great Enlil: his personal god was Cul-utul, he acted for 690 years. , the son of -tum: he acted for X + 360 years.
164-172 - En-entar-zid: his god was Mec-an-du (?), of the seed of ancient days, who had grown together with the city, he acted for 990 years. , the son of En-entar-zid: he dug the canal Urmah-banda, and the canal Tabta-kug-gal, his personal god was Mec-an-du (?); his master Ningirsu commanded him to build his temple; he acted for 960 years.
173-175 - En-: he acted for 600 years. , the son of En-: his personal god was Ninazu; he acted for 660 years.
176 - : he acted for 1110 years.
177-181 - Puzur-: he acted for X 60 + 1 years. En- (?), the son of Puzur-: his personal god was , he acted for 120 years. Dadu, the son of En- (?): he acted for 160 years. Tuggur, the son of Dadu: he acted for 160 years.
182 - : he acted for 120 years.
183-191 - Puzur-, the scribe of Ninki: his personal god was Zazaru; he acted for years. Lamku-niggena (?), the administrator of Puzur-, who built the wall of Girsu, his , and the Tirac palace in Lagac: he acted for 280 years. Hengal, the son of Lamku-niggena (?): his god was Pabilsag (?), he acted for 140 years. , the son of Hengal: he acted for 144 years.
192-199 - Ur-, the scribe and scholar: , his personal gods were Haya and Nisaba, he acted for X + 20 years. Ur-, the son of Ur-: he acted for X 60 years. Ur-, the scribe of Ur-, who in the assembly: he acted for X + 30 years. Gudea, the younger brother of Ur-, , who was not the son of his mother nor the son of his father: he acted for years.
200 - Written in the school. Nisaba be praised!
ejer noun back
a-ma-ru noun flood
ùr verb to drag
ù conj and
kur noun (mountain) land
jar verb to place
nám-lú-úlú3nàm-lù2-ùlù noun humanity
dá-rí adj eternal
ak verb to do
numun noun seed
nám-lú-úlú3nàm-lù2-ùlù noun humanity
taka4 verb to leave behind
ùj noun people
saj noun head
gíg verb to be black
ní-bí pronoun itself, themselves
íl verb to raise
ud noun day(light)
an noun An
én-líl noun Enlil
nám-lú-úlú3nàm-lù2-ùlù noun humanity
mu noun name
sa4 verb to call
ù conj and
nám-énsí noun rulership
jar verb to place
nam-lugal noun kingship
aga noun crown
iri noun town
an noun heaven
è verb to go out or in
nín-jír-sú noun Ningirsu
al noun hoe
mar noun spade
dusu noun earth-carrying basket
apin noun plough
zí-cág4-jál adj life-giving
kalam noun the Land
ùj noun people
sig10 verb to place
cár verb to be numerous
jar verb to place
ud noun day(light)
lú-túr noun child
dàn verb to be clean
mu noun year
100 numeral 100
ak verb to do
nàm-bùlùj noun nurture
mu noun year
100 numeral 100
ak verb to do
kíj-gí4-á noun messenger
gi4 verb to return
tur verb to be small
tur verb to be small
jál verb to be (located)
ama noun mother
udu noun sheep
tùr noun animal stall
ri verb to direct
ud noun day(light)
a noun water
lagac noun Lagac
verb to erect
jír-sú noun Girsu
cag4-jar noun hunger
jál verb to be (located)
íd noun watercourse
dun verb to dig
ég noun embankment
pa5 noun canal
cu-luh noun ritual cleansing
ak verb to do
à-gàr noun meadow
gal verb to be big
XX
XbrXbr
XX
gáná noun field
gáná noun field
zid adj right
a noun water
hé-jál noun plenty
verb to pour
nám-lú-úlú3nàm-lù2-ùlù noun humanity
igi noun eye
im noun rain(storm)
cèj verb to rain
bar verb to set aside
ézíná noun Ezina
ce noun barley
gu-nu noun flax
verb to grow
àbsìn noun furrow
ka noun mouth
du8 verb to spread
noun neck
íl verb to raise
an-edin noun high plain
ur11-ru verb to plough
noun neck
íl verb to raise
kur noun (mountain) land
ùj noun people
lu verb to be abundant
dijir noun deity
ulucin noun sweet emmer beer
kurun noun type of beer
kurun noun type of beer
dùg verb to be good
XX
XX
bal verb to turn over
a-cag4 noun field
gal verb to be big
apin noun plough
ur11-ru verb to plough
íd noun watercourse
a-cag4 noun field
íd noun watercourse
dun verb to dig
ég noun embankment
pa5 noun canal
cu-luh noun ritual cleansing
ak verb to do
à-gàr noun meadow
gal verb to be big
XX
gáná noun field
gáná noun field
zid adj right
al noun hoe
mar noun spade
dusu noun earth-carrying basket
apin noun plough
zí-cág4-jál adj life-giving
kalam noun the Land
ùj noun people
jar verb to place
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
èd verb to go down or up
jéctúg noun ear
gub verb to stand
ki-sikil noun young woman
igi noun eye
gub verb to stand
ud noun day(light)
ji6 noun night
kí-úlútím noun place of creation
saj noun head
íl verb to raise
ézíná noun Ezina
ce-numun noun grain seed
verb to grow
ki noun place
za verb to bow down
èd verb to go down or up
ézíná noun Ezina
ce noun barley
gu-nu noun flax
verb to grow
KUKU
íl verb to raise
DUDU
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
igi noun eye
huc verb to be reddish
XX
XX
PU noun PU
dun verb to dig
mu noun year
760 numeral 2760
ak verb to do
én-á-kí-gál-lá-gúb-bá noun En-akigalaguba
dijir noun deity
X noun unclear
nìjìn6-jìc-tùkù-àm noun Nigin-gic-tukuam
dun verb to dig
mu noun year
100 numeral 1200
ak verb to do
ud noun day(light)
mu noun name
sar verb to write
me verb to be
XX
íd noun watercourse
dun verb to dig
dusu noun earth-carrying basket
íl verb to raise
ud noun day(light)
á noun arm
URUR
lugal noun king
ùj noun people
jic noun tree
tag verb to touch
kug-sig17 noun gold
èd verb to go down or up
huc verb to be reddish
huc verb to be reddish
jar verb to place
XX
tag verb to touch
kabar noun junior shepherd
zid adj right
kalam noun the Land
è verb to go out or in
a noun water
suhur noun type of carp
ab noun sea
abrig noun type of priest
URUR
saj noun head
rig7 verb to bestow
én-nín-jír-sú-kí-áj noun En-Ningirsu-ki-ag
dumu noun child
én-á-kí-gál-lá-gúb-bá noun En-akigalaguba
mu noun year
130120 numeral 1320
ak verb to do
én-én-líl-lé-kí-áj noun En-Enlile-ki-ag
dumu noun child
én-nín-jír-sú-kí-áj noun En-Ningirsu-ki-ag
mu noun year
1800 numeral 1800
ak verb to do
úr-bá-ú noun Ur-Bau
dumu noun child
én-én-líl-lé-kí-áj noun En-Enlile-ki-ag
mu noun year
900 numeral 900
ak verb to do
á-gál noun A-gal
dijir noun deity
ig-alim noun Ig-alim
mu noun year
660 numeral 660
ak verb to do
KU-e noun KU-e
dumu noun child
á-gál noun A-gal
mu noun year
100 numeral 1200
ak verb to do
ama-alim noun Ama-alim
dumu noun child
KU-e noun KU-e
mu noun year
600 numeral 600
ak verb to do
XX
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
XX
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
AA
XX
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
GANGAN
UNUN
X noun unclear
dun verb to dig
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
mah noun Mah
X noun unclear
pìrìj-gìn7-jèn noun Piriggin-gen
X noun unclear
pìrìj noun Pirig
ka noun mouth
lugal noun Lugal
gáná-hí-lí-án-ná noun Gana-hili-ana
TE-X noun TE-X
nàncè-pàd-dà noun Nance-pada
dun verb to dig
à-gàr noun meadow
gal verb to be big
1 numeral 1
pa5 noun canal
a noun water
dug4 verb to say
AMAR.TI.AN noun meaning unknown
dun verb to dig
mu noun year
0 numeral 2220
ak verb to do
ur-nance noun Ur-Nance
dumu noun child
XX
XX
é-sírárá6 noun E-Sirara
é noun house(hold)
cag4 noun heart
húl verb to be happy
nijin6 noun Nigin
iri noun town
ki noun place
áj verb to measure
verb to erect
mu noun year
1080 numeral 1080
ak verb to do
án-né-túm noun Ane-tum
dumu noun child
ur-nance noun Ur-Nance
ki noun place
alim noun bison
dijir noun deity
gub verb to stand
sàj-tùn noun land registrar
én-líl noun Enlil
gal verb to be big
DEDE
dijir noun deity
cul-utul10 noun Cul-utul
mu noun year
690 numeral 690
ak verb to do
NENE
dumu noun child
án-né-túm noun Ane-tum
mu noun year
XX
60 numeral 360
ak verb to do
èn-èn-tàr-zìd noun En-entar-zid
dijir noun deity
mèc-àn-DU noun Mec-an-DU
numun noun seed
ud noun day(light)
re pronoun that
iri noun town
verb to grow
mu noun year
990 numeral 990
ak verb to do
X noun unclear
dumu noun child
èn-èn-tàr-zìd noun En-entar-zid
ùr-màh-bàn-dà noun Urmah-banda
táb-tá-kú3-jáltàb-tà-kù-jàl2 noun Tabta-ku-gal
dun verb to dig
dijir noun deity
mèc-àn-DU noun Mec-an-DU
lugal noun king
nín-jír-sú noun Ningirsu
é noun house(hold)
verb to erect
dug4 verb to say
mu noun year
960 numeral 960
ak verb to do
én-én-líl-lé-sú noun En-Enlile-su
mu noun year
600 numeral 600
ak verb to do
en-X-X noun En-X-X
dumu noun child
én-én-líl-lé-sú noun En-Enlile-su
dijir noun deity
nin-a-zu noun Ninazu
mu noun year
660 numeral 660
ak verb to do
X noun unclear
mu noun year
1110 numeral 1110
ak verb to do
púzúr4-nín-líl noun Puzur-Ninlil
mu noun year
X numeral X
60 numeral 60
1 numeral 1
ak verb to do
èn-mèc-àn-DU noun En-Mec-an-DU
dumu noun child
púzúr4-nín-líl noun Puzur-Ninlil
dijir noun deity
ANAN
mu noun year
numeral 2
60 numeral 60
ak verb to do
da-du noun Dadu
dumu noun child
èn-mèc-àn-DU noun En-Mec-an-DU
mu noun year
160 numeral 160
ak verb to do
túg-gúr noun Tuggur
dumu noun child
da-du noun Dadu
mu noun year
160 numeral 160
ak verb to do
LALA
XX
mu noun year
10 numeral 120
ak verb to do
puzur4-ma-ma noun Puzur-Mama
dub-sar noun scribe
nin-ki noun Ninki
dijir noun deity
za-za-ru noun Zazaru
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
LAM.KU-níj-gén6-ná noun LAM.KU-niggena
cag4-tam noun type of administrator
puzur4-ma-ma noun Puzur-Mama
noun person
bàd noun wall
jír-sú noun Girsu
ACAC
é-gál noun palace
tí-rá-ác noun Tirac
ki noun place
lagac noun Lagac
verb to erect
mu noun year
80 numeral 280
ak verb to do
hé-én-jál noun Hengal
dumu noun child
LAM.KU-níj-gén6-ná noun LAM.KU-niggena
dijir noun deity
pá-bíl-sáj noun Pabilsag
mu noun year
140 numeral 140
ak verb to do
dumu noun child
hé-én-jál noun Hengal
mu noun year
144 numeral 144
ak verb to do
ur-nin-mar-ki noun Ur-Ninmarki
dub-sar noun scribe
um-mi-a noun scholar
XX
XX
KALKAL
saj noun head
dúr noun rump
dijir noun deity
hà-ìà noun Haia
nisaba noun Nisaba
mu noun year
XX
0 numeral 20
ak verb to do
úr-nín-jír-sú noun Ur-Ningirsu
dumu noun child
ur-nin-mar-ki noun Ur-Ninmarki
mu noun year
X numeral X
60 numeral 60
ak verb to do
úr-bá-ú noun Ur-Bau
dub-sar noun scribe
úr-nín-jír-sú noun Ur-Ningirsu
XX
XX
unken noun assembly
mu noun year
XX
0 numeral 30
ak verb to do
gú3-dé-ágù-dè2-à noun Gudea
cèc-bàn-dà noun younger brother
úr-bá-ú noun Ur-Bau
dumu noun child
ama noun mother
dumu noun child
ad-da noun father
me verb to be
mu noun year
XX
ak verb to do
é-dúb-bá-á noun scribal school
sar verb to write
nisaba noun Nisaba
zá3-mízà-mì2 noun praise