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The advice of a supervisor to a younger scribe (E-dub-ba-a C) -- a composite transliteration
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1 - dumu é-dub-ba-a ud ul-la já-nu ki-ju10-cè
2 - níj um-mi-a-ju10 mu-un-pàd-da za-e ga-ra-pàd-pàd
3 - za-e-gin7-nam nam-lú-tur ì-ak cec-gal ì-tuku-àm
4 - um-mi-a lú-ta kíj-já-àm á áj-já jic bí-in-jar
5 - gi al-gu4-ud-da-gin7 ì-gu4-ud-dè-en kíj-já bí-in-sig10-ge-en
6 - inim um-mi-a-ju10 nu-un-taka4 níj ní-já li-bí-ak
7 - cec-gal-ju10 á jic jar-ra-já cag4-ga-ni i-ni-in-dùg
8 - ì-sun5-ne na-mu-da-ci-húl silim-já i-ni-in-dug4
9 - jic ma-an-hur-ra na-an-dím ki-bi-cè al-jar-jar
10 - na de5-ga-ni-ta hu-ru-um cu bar dib-ba-e
11 - im-ma cu-ju10 ús zid mu-un-dab5
12 - ka-ju10 inim-ma jál ba-ni-in-taka4 ad gi4-gi4 ma-an-pàd
13 - jic-hur á áj-já igi ma-ni-in-si-si
14 - zi-zi-i ha-la á áj-já-kam ud zal-le níj-gig-ga
15 - ki á áj-já-ni-cè ud zal-la á áj-já-ni ab-taka4
16 - níj-zu-a-ni pa nu-um-è ka-ga14-ni ba-an-lá
17 - tukum-bi níj-zu-a-ni pa ba-an-è igi mu-un-suh-suh-ù-ne
18 - ud na-ab-zal-e-en ji6 na-ab-sed4-e-en á-bi-cè jen-na
19 - cec-gal cec-bàn-da hi-li-a-bi na-an-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4
20 - saj-ki gal-gal-la um-ma-te inim-zu ba-dugud-dè-en
21 - -kam-ma-cè igi kécé-da-zu-cè nu-ra-ni-ib-gi4-gi4
22 - ki za-za téc lú-u18-lu-ka mah-bi hé-ri-dù
23 - ú téc-a-ka cag4 ab-sed4-dè nam-tag-ga al-du8-e
24 - cu sug4-ga-ka kadra-ni ur5-cè nir mu-un-jál
25 - níj nu-tuku mác gur-ra-na gaba-na i-im-tab
26 - lú-járzá-ra ki hé-en-ne-za hé-kécé ba-sed4-dè
27 - níj um-mi-a-ju10 mu-un-pàd-dè e-ra-cid nu-mu-ra-ab-taka4
28 - jizzal hé-bí-ak cag4-cè gíd-i-dè sag9-ge-zu mu-da-an-jál
29 - dub-sar úmún ak sun5-na-bi ugula-a-ni mu-un-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4
30 - ud mu7-mu7-gin7 ab-cid-en-na-a ba-an-gi4-bi a-ra-ab-ha-za-an
31 - mu gud-gin7 i-lu dùg-ga-zu-cè jic ì-lá-a-bi
32 - nu-zu nam-mu-ni-ib-ku4-ku4 1(DIC)-àm ga-ra-ni-ib-gi4
33 - ur-gir15 tur-gin7 igi mu-e-bad-bad nam-lú-ùlù mu-e-ak
34 - a-na-ac-àm jic ma-ab-hur-hur-re-en
35 - inim-zu jic ba-ni-in-tuku-a cu àm-ma-kár-kár
36 - nam-dub-sar-ra a-na mu-e-pàd-da-zu cu-za ba-ni-in-cúm
37 - é-za hé-bí-gub-bé-en ud na-me níj ba-ra-àm-mu-ri-ib-dug4
38 - gémé árád jìrì-sig10-ga é-za kíj-gi4-a hé-bí-ne-gi4
39 - cúkúr-bi túg-bi ù ì-ba-bi cag4-bi ha-ma-dùg-ga
40 - a-rá-bi-cè kíj-gi4-a hé-bí-in-ne-gi4 é lugal-ka árád ba-ra-bí-in-ús
41 - gaba ud-já hé-bí-ak udu-gin7 hé-eb-ús-ù-nam
42 - sízkúr sa gi4-gi4-da hé-mu-e-dug4 ud-bi hé-ri-ib-dug4
43 - udu-bi ú-gu7-bi ha-ma-sag9-sag9 dijir-zu hé-húl
44 - ud dijir-za ús-sa-bi giri17 cu ha-ra-ab-tag-ge-ne
45 - gaba a-cag4-ga-cè á hé-mu-e-da-a-a-áj érín-e kíj hé-bí-ak
46 - kíj a-da-mìn-na ji6 an-bar7-ba ù ba-ra-bí-ku-àm
47 - ús-a-DU dumu engar-ra-ke4-e-ne saj hu-mu-un-kal-le-ne
48 - a-cag4-za cu nam-sag9-ga hé-bí-gi4 ùj-e u6 di hé-ri-ib-dug4
49 - gud-dè a-na-àm gub-zu dirig hé-em-tùm gú-un-bi ha-ra-ab-silim-ma-àm
50 - tur-ra-ju10-ta hé-em-ma-dim4-e-en a-rá-ju10 igi hé-bí-du8
51 - kug sag9-ga-gin7 kurum7 hé-bí-ak ki-cer11 la-ba-an-tuku
52 - gal-bi nu-di níj-gig-zu-gin7 e-ra-da-tuc-ù-nam
53 - tur-tur-re e-ra-da-sah6-sah6-na pa ga-ra-ab-è zu-a
54 - ud-bi-ta lú-tur hé-me-en-na ì-ne-éc saj-zu íl
55 - cu-zu lú-ra mu-da-an-gi4-gi4-in a-rá-bi-cè DU-mu-un
56 - cùdù hé-mu-e-ca4 nam mu-tar-ra
57 - na de5-ga ga ì gu7-a-gin7 su-já i-ni-in-kur9-ra
58 - gub-bu pàd-da-zu
59 - ki sag9-ga-bi hé-ri-ib-dug4 níj-hul-bi li-bí-in-ak
60 - um-mi-a inim zu-ù-ne saj hu-mu-un-kal-le-ne
60A - é-bi-a ki saj-kal-la-ba DI-DI hu-mu-un-e-ne
60B - mu-zu dùg-ge-ec pàd-dè-da-bi saj-ki-bi ma-jál
60E - um-mi-a cag4 húl-la-ni-ta cùdù mu-na-an-ca4
61 - lú-tur inim-ju10-cè ba-tuc-ù-nam cag4-ju10 bí-dùg-ga-àm
62 - (d)nisaba dugud-da um-mi-a cu-za i-ni-in-jar-ra
63 - nam i-ri-tar-ra mu-na-ra-kúr-ru cu zid ha-ra-an-já-já cu dug4-ga (d)nisaba-me-en an-cè
64 - cag4 húl-la nam-cè hé-bí-tar cag4 sàg hé-da-zìg
65 - é-dub-ba-a ki-umum-ma a-na jál-la
66 - nam-mah (d)nisaba níj-me-jar pàd-pàd di-da-bi
67 - gud-ús cìr dùg-dùg-ga-zu-cè jic lá-bi mah
68 - cìr dùg-ga-zu-cè jic ga-mu-ni-in-lá MUNUS-zu-gin7 ga-mu-ni-tag-tag
69 - níj hu-mu-un-pàd-pàd-dè-ne
70 - di4-di4-lá inim-inim-ma hé-du7 kac hu-mu-un-ku7-ku7-dè-ne
71 - gacam ki ku10-ku10-ga ud já-já
72 - sila saj gi4-a sila-a ba-an-já-já
73 - ús téc-ba ri-a in ki-bi sur-sur
74 - nin me-ni-da me nu-sá-a (d)nisaba zà-mí
1-2 - (The supervisor speaks:) 'One-time member of the school, come here to me, and let me explain to you what my teacher revealed.'
3-8 - 'Like you, I was once a youth and had a mentor. The teacher assigned a task to me -- it was man's work. Like a springing reed, I leapt up and put myself to work. I did not depart from my teacher's instructions, and I did not start doing things on my own initiative. My mentor was delighted with my work on the assignment. He rejoiced that I was humble before him and he spoke in my favour.'
9-15 - 'I just did whatever he outlined for me -- everything was always in its place. Only a fool would have deviated from his instructions. He guided my hand on the clay and kept me on the right path. He made me eloquent with words and gave me advice. He focused my eyes on the rules which guide a man with a task: zeal is proper for a task, time-wasting is taboo; anyone who wastes time on his task is neglecting his task.'
16-20 - 'He did not vaunt his knowledge: his words were modest. If he had vaunted his knowledge, people would have frowned. Do not waste time, do not rest at night -- get on with that work! Do not reject the pleasurable company of a mentor or his assistant: once you have come into contact with such great brains, you will make your own words more worthy.'
21-26 - 'And another thing: you will never return to your blinkered vision; that would be greatly to demean due deference, the decency of mankind. Worthy plants calm the heart, and sins are absolved. An empty-handed man's gifts are respected as such. Even a poor man clutches a kid to his chest as he kneels. You should defer to the powers that be and -- that will calm you.'
27-28 - 'There, I have recited to you what my teacher revealed, and you will not neglect it. You should pay attention -- taking it to heart will be to your benefit!'
29-35 - The learned scribe humbly answered his supervisor: 'I shall give you a response to what you have just recited like a magic spell, and a rebuttal to your charming ditty delivered in a bellow. Do not make me out to be an ignoramus -- I will answer you once and for all! You opened my eyes like a puppy's and you made me into a human being. But why do you go on outlining rules for me as if I were a shirker? Anyone hearing your words would feel insulted!'
36-41 - 'Whatever you revealed of the scribal art has been repaid to you. You put me in charge of your household and I have never served you by shirking. I have assigned duties to the slave girls, slaves and subordinates in your household. I have kept them happy with rations, clothing and oil rations, and I have assigned the order of their duties to them, so that you do not have to follow the slaves around in the house of their master. I do this as soon as I wake up, and I chivvy them around like sheep.'
42-49 - 'When you have ordered offerings to be prepared, I have performed them for you on the appropriate days. I have made the sheep and banquets attractive, so that your god is overjoyed. When the boat of your god arrives, people should greet it with respect. When you have ordered me to the edge of the fields, I have made the men work there. It is challenging work which permits no sleep either at night or in the heat of day, if the cultivators are to do their best at the field-borders. I have restored quality to your fields, so people admire you. Whatever your task for the oxen, I have exceeded it and have fully completed their loads for you.'
50-53 - 'Since my childhood you have scrutinised me and kept an eye on my behaviour, inspecting it like fine silver -- there is no limit to it! Without speaking grandly -- as is your shortcoming -- I serve before you. But those who undervalue themselves are ignored by you -- know that I want to make this clear to you.'
54-59 - (The supervisor answers:) 'Raise your head now, you who were formerly a youth. You can turn your hand against any man, so act as is befitting.' (The scribe speaks:) 'Through you who offered prayers and so blessed me, who instilled instruction into my body as if I were consuming milk and butter, who showed his service to have been unceasing, I have experienced success and suffered no evil.'
60-61 - (The supervisor answers:) 'The teachers, those learned men, should value you highly. They should in their houses and in prominent places. Your name will be hailed as honourable for its prominence. For your sweet songs even the cowherds will strive gloriously. For your sweet songs I too shall strive and shall . The teacher will bless you with a joyous heart. You who as a youth sat at my words have pleased my heart.'
62-72 - 'Nisaba has placed in your hand the honour of being a teacher. For her, the fate determined for you will be changed and so you will be generously blessed You were created by Nisaba! May you upwards . May she bless you with a joyous heart and free you from all despondency. at whatever is in the school, the place of learning. The majesty of Nisaba silence. For your sweet songs even the cowherds will strive gloriously. For your sweet songs I too shall strive and shall . They should recognise that you are a practitioner (?) of wisdom. The little fellows should enjoy like beer the sweetness of decorous words: experts bring light to dark places, they bring it to culs-de-sac and streets.'
73-74 - Praise Nisaba who has brought order to and fixed districts in their boundaries, the lady whose divine powers are divine powers that have no rival!
dumu noun child
é-dúb-bá-á noun scribal school
ud noun day(light)
ul noun distant time
jen verb to go
ki noun place
níj noun thing
um-mi-a noun scholar
pàd verb to find
za pronoun you (sg.)
pàd verb to find
za pronoun you (sg.)
nám-lú-túr noun status as child
ak verb to do
cec-gal noun elder brother
tuku verb to have
um-mi-a noun scholar
noun person
kíj noun work
á noun arm
áj verb to measure
jic noun tree
jar verb to place
gi noun reed
gu4-ud verb to jump on
gu4-ud verb to jump on
kíj noun work
sig10 verb to place
inim noun word
um-mi-a noun scholar
taka4 verb to leave behind
níj noun thing
ní-jú10 pronoun myself
ak verb to do
cec-gal noun elder brother
á noun arm
jic noun tree
jar verb to place
cag4 noun heart
dùg verb to be good
sun5 verb to be humble
húl verb to be happy
silim verb to be healthy
dug4 verb to say
jic noun tree
hur verb to scratch
dím verb to create
ki noun place
jar verb to place
na noun advice
de5 verb to collect
noun person
hu-ru-um noun social inferior
cu noun hand
bar verb to set aside
dib verb to pass
im noun clay
cu noun hand
ús noun path
zid adj right
dab5 verb to seize
ka noun mouth
inim noun word
jál verb to open
taka4 verb to leave behind
ad noun voice
gi4 verb to return
pàd verb to find
jic-hur noun design
noun person
á noun arm
áj verb to measure
igi noun eye
si verb to fill
noun neck
zìg verb to rise
ha-la noun share
á noun arm
áj verb to measure
ud noun day(light)
zal verb to pass
níj-gíg noun abomination
noun person
ki noun place
á noun arm
áj verb to measure
ud noun day(light)
zal verb to pass
á noun arm
áj verb to measure
taka4 verb to leave behind
níj-zú noun knowledge
pa noun branch
è verb to go out or in
ka noun mouth
verb to hang
tukum-bi conj if
níj-zú noun knowledge
pa noun branch
è verb to go out or in
igi noun eye
suh verb to tear out
ud noun day(light)
zal verb to pass
ji6 noun night
sed4 verb to be cold
á noun arm
jen verb to go
cec-gal noun elder brother
cèc-bàn-dà noun younger brother
hi-li noun attractiveness
gi4 verb to return
saj-ki noun forehead
gal verb to be big
te verb to approach
inim noun word
dugud verb to be heavy
-kám-má numeral 2nd
igi noun eye
kécé verb to bind
gi4 verb to return
ki noun place
za verb to bow down
téc noun pride
lú-úlú3lù2-ùlù noun person
mah verb to be majestic
noun neck
verb to erect
ú noun plant
téc noun pride
cag4 noun heart
sed4 verb to be cold
nam-tag noun sin
du8 verb to spread
noun person
cu noun hand
sug4 verb to be empty
kadra noun greeting gift
ur5 pronoun that
nir noun authority
jál verb to be (located)
noun person
níj noun thing
tuku verb to have
mác noun (kid) goat
gur verb to turn
gaba noun chest
tab verb to be parallel
lú-járzá noun type of official
ki noun place
za verb to bow down
kécé verb to bind
sed4 verb to be cold
níj noun thing
um-mi-a noun scholar
pàd verb to find
cid verb to count
taka4 verb to leave behind
jizzal noun hearing
ak verb to do
cag4 noun heart
gíd verb to be long
sag9 verb to be good
jál verb to be (located)
dub-sar noun scribe
úmún noun knowledge source
ak verb to do
sun5 verb to be humble
ugula noun overseer
gi4 verb to return
ud noun day(light)
mu7-mu7 noun incantation
cid verb to count
ba-an-gi4 noun response
ha-za verb to hold
mu7 verb to make noise
gud noun bull
i-lu noun (sad) song
dùg verb to be good
jic noun tree
verb to hang
noun person
zu verb to know
kur9 verb to enter
1 numeral 1
gi4 verb to return
ur-gir15 noun domestic dog
tur verb to be small
igi noun eye
bad verb to open
nám-lú-úlú3nàm-lù2-ùlù noun humanity
ak verb to do
a-na-ac adv why
noun person
jic noun tree
hur verb to scratch
noun person
inim noun word
jic noun tree
tuku verb to have
cu noun hand
kár verb to blow
nam-dub-sar noun scribe's craft
a-na pronoun what(ever)
pàd verb to find
cu noun hand
cúm verb to give
é noun house(hold)
gub verb to stand
ud noun day(light)
na-me pronoun any
níj noun thing
verb to equal
dug4 verb to say
gémé noun female slave
arad noun slave
jìrì-sìg10-gà noun attendant
é noun house(hold)
kíj-gí4-á noun messenger
gi4 verb to return
cúkúr noun ration
túg noun garment
ù conj and
ba verb to allot
cag4 noun heart
dùg verb to be good
á-rá noun way
kíj-gí4-á noun messenger
gi4 verb to return
é noun house(hold)
lugal noun king
arad noun slave
ús verb to be adjacent
gaba noun chest
ud noun day(light)
ak verb to do
udu noun sheep
ús verb to be adjacent
sízkúr noun prayer
sa noun sinew
gi4 verb to return
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
verb to equal
dug4 verb to say
udu noun sheep
ú-gú7 noun food
sag9 verb to be good
dijir noun deity
húl verb to be happy
ud noun day(light)
noun boat
dijir noun deity
ús verb to be adjacent
giri17 noun nose
cu noun hand
tag verb to touch
gaba noun chest
a-cag4 noun field
á noun arm
áj verb to measure
érín noun group of people
kíj noun work
ak verb to do
kíj noun work
à-dà-mìn noun contest
ji6 noun night
an-bar7 noun midday
ù noun sleep
ku verb to lay down
ús-á-DU noun border
dumu noun child
engar noun farmer
saj noun head
kal verb to be rare
a-cag4 noun field
cu noun hand
nam-sag9-ga noun pleasure
gi4 verb to return
ùj noun people
u6 noun wonder
dug4 verb to say
dug4 verb to say
gud noun bull
a-na pronoun what(ever)
gub verb to stand
dirig verb to be superior
de6 verb to carry
gún noun weight measure (load)
silim verb to be healthy
tur verb to be small
dim4 verb to check
á-rá noun way
igi noun eye
du8 verb to spread
kug noun precious metal
sag9 verb to be good
kurum7 noun inspection
ak verb to do
ki-ce-er noun limit
tuku verb to have
gal verb to be big
dug4 verb to say
níj-gíg noun abomination
tuc verb to sit
noun self
tur verb to be small
sah6 verb to withdraw
pa noun branch
è verb to go out or in
zu verb to know
ud noun day(light)
lú-túr noun child
me verb to be
í3-né-écì-nè-èc2 adv now
saj noun head
íl verb to raise
cu noun hand
noun person
gi4 verb to return
á-rá noun way
DU verb DU
cùdù noun prayer
ca4 verb verb part of multiword verb
nam noun destiny
tar verb to cut
na noun advice
de5 verb to collect
ga noun milk
ì noun fatty substance
gu7 verb to eat
su noun flesh
kur9 verb to enter
gub verb to stand
pàd verb to find
ki noun place
sag9 verb to be good
verb to equal
dug4 verb to say
níj-húl noun evil action
ak verb to do
um-mi-a noun scholar
noun person
inim noun word
zu verb to know
saj noun head
kal verb to be rare
é noun house(hold)
ki noun place
saj-kal adj foremost
DIDI
dug4 verb to say
mu noun name
dùg verb to be good
pàd verb to find
saj-ki noun forehead
jál verb to be (located)
um-mi-a noun scholar
cag4 noun heart
húl verb to be happy
cùdù noun prayer
ca4 verb verb part of multiword verb
lú-túr noun child
inim noun word
tuc verb to sit
cag4 noun heart
dùg verb to be good
nisaba noun Nisaba
dugud verb to be heavy
um-mi-a noun scholar
cu noun hand
jar verb to place
nam noun destiny
tar verb to cut
kúr verb to be different
cu noun hand
zid adj right
jar verb to place
cu noun hand
dug4 verb to say
nisaba noun Nisaba
noun neck
an noun heaven
cag4 noun heart
húl verb to be happy
nam noun destiny
tar verb to cut
cag4 noun heart
sàg verb to beat
zìg verb to rise
é-dúb-bá-á noun scribal school
kí-úmún noun place of learning
a-na pronoun what(ever)
jál verb to be (located)
nam-mah noun majesty
nisaba noun Nisaba
níj-mé-jár noun silence
pàd verb to find
dug4 verb to say
gúd-ús noun cowherd
cìr noun song
dùg verb to be good
jic noun tree
verb to hang
mah verb to be majestic
cìr noun song
dùg verb to be good
jic noun tree
verb to hang
MUNUS noun MUNUS
tag verb to touch
níj noun thing
pàd verb to find
di4-di4 verb to be small
inim noun word
hé-dú7 noun (fitting) ornament
kac noun beer
ku7-ku7 verb to be sweet
gacam noun (expert) craftsman
ki noun place
ku10-ku10 verb to be dark
ud noun day(light)
jar verb to place
sila noun street
saj noun head
gi4 verb to return
sila noun street
jar verb to place
ús verb to be adjacent
téc noun unity
ri verb to direct
in noun zone
ki noun place
sur verb to drip
nin noun lady
me noun essence
me noun essence
verb to equal
nisaba noun Nisaba
zá3-mízà-mì2 noun praise