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The farmer's instructions -- a composite transliteration
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1 - ud-ul-ur11-ru dumu-ni na mu-un-de5-ga-àm
2 - a-cag4 dib-bé-da-zu-ne
3 - ég pa5 du6 du8-ù-dè igi kár-kár-ab
4 - a-cag4 a dé-a-zu-ne a-bi cag4-ba nu-íl
5 - ud a-ta im-mu-e-a-èd-dè-a
6 - a-cag4 ki duru5-bi en-nu-ùj ak-ab ki-ce-er a-ra-ab-tuku
7 - gud súhúb jìrì na-ra-ab-zukum-e
8 - ú-saga11-bi ù-bí-zé a-cag4 ki-jar ù-bí-dug4
9 - 10-àm gij4 sal /32/ ma-na-ta sá-a-ab
10 - al-cub-bé umbin gud ha-ra-cú-cú sa ha-ra-ab-lá-lá
11 - ki ka sal-la-bi ú-tag ha-ra-tag-tag
12 - a-cag4-ga ub-da 4-ba al-e ha-ra-ni10-ni10
13 - en-na a-cag4-ga al-cej6-cej6-e-da téc a-ra-ab-sig10-ge5-a
14 - cu-kár-zu sa ha-ra-ab-gi4-a
15 - cudul-zu á-cita4-a-bi ha-ra-kécé
16 - ùsàn gibil-zu gag-a ha-ra-ab-lá
17 - ùsàn sumun-zu mud lá-lá-a-bi
18 - dumu gacam-ta dùg ha-ra-ab-ak-e
19 - gij4 bulug cum-me cu-kár-zu á-zu
20 - saj-kécé bar-èd-dè ka-dù ùsàn saj-zu hé-ha-za
21 - ba-an-du8-zu káb di hu-mu-ra-ab-ak á kalag-ga hu-mu-ra-an-ak-e
22 - á-ác a-cag4-ga-zu da hé-en-jál kíj-zu igi kár-ka-ab
23 - gud-apin gud dirig-ga a-ab-tuku-a
24 - gud gud-da dur bí-ib-tu-lu-a
25 - apin-bi apin-na a-ab-dirig
26 - éc-gàr apin 1-e 180 iku-àm
27 - za-e 144 iku jic dù-ba-ab
28 - á cag4 húl-gin7 a-ra-ab-dím-e
29 - 18 iku-ba ce gur ba-an-já-já
30 - usu apin 1(DIC)-e a-cag4 bar-dili-bi ù-bí-ak
31 - bar-dili-bi apin-túg-saga11 ù-bí-ak túg-gur-ra-ab
32 - jic ùr-ra-ab jic gi4-a-ab jic pec-bí-ib
33 - ki sumur-bi níj-gul-ta gag-dág-ac ù-bí-ak
34 - mud níj-gul-zu saj-za hé-ha-za níj na-du-un
35 - kíj ak-zu-a
36 - kíj ak-zu-cè
37 - a-cag4 kíj-zu ak na-an-na-ab-bé
38 - ud mul-an-na cu im-ma-ab-du7-a-ta
39 - 10-àm á gud a-cag4 zi-zi-i-da-cè igi-zu nam-ba-e-gíd-i
40 - al dù-a-bi ha-ra-ab-ak-e
41 - a-cag4 ur11-ru-da-zu-ne
42 - apin-zu gu ha-ra-ab-dúb
43 - ka-cú apin-na-zu im-du5-mu cub-ì
44 - dam-zu gag sal-la cub-ì
45 - le-um-zu á hé-tál-tál ab-sín-zu gub-ba-ab
46 - 1 nindan ús ab-sín 8 gub-ba-ab
47 - ab-sín durun-dúr-ru-na ce-bi a-ab-gíd
48 - a-cag4 ur11-ru-da-zu-ne
49 - ce-numun jar-ra-zu igi-zu jar-ì
50 - cu-si-ta-àm (d)ézíná hé-en-cub
51 - 1 nindan ús-ta 1 gij4 ce ha-ra-jar
52 - tukum-bi ce-numun a-tur-ra nu-ub-suhur
53 - níj-kud eme-apin-na-zu kúr-ra-ab
54 - tukum-bi dur a-ab-tu-lu dur tur-ra-ab
55 - ki ab-sín ì-ur11-ru-a ab-sín cibir ur11-ru-ab
56 - ki ab-sín cibir ì-ur11-ru-a ab-sín ur11-ru-ab
57 - ab-sín tu-lu TAG mu-ra-já-já
58 - ab-sín lug-gú-zu
59 - ab-sín ab-ki-iz-bi DU-a gáná ku5-rá-zu ur11-ru-ab
60 - lag-bi ha-ra-ri-ri
61 - ki-sahar ús-bi ab-sín ha-ra-ni-ib-ra
62 - ki-sahar ka tab-bi ab-sín ha-ra-sig-sig
63 - hénbúr-cè a-ra-sag9
64 - ud hénbúr-e ki im-ma-ab-dar-ra-ta
65 - sízkúr (d)nin-kilim-ke4 dug4-ga-ab
66 - bir5(mušen)-ra bal-e-eb
67 - ud ce ka sal-la ab-sín-na-ka a-ab-dirig
68 - a numun saj-já-ke4 dug4-ga-ab
69 - ud ce kid-má-cag4-ga-ba ab-gub-ba a dug4-ga-ab
70 - ce lillan-ba a dug4-ga-ab
71 - ud ce luh-ha an-sud-a a na-ab-bé-en sa-ma-ná-ac ba-gig
72 - ud ce bir ak-dè a-ab-du7-a a dug4-ga-ab
73 - ba-an-ba 1 sìlà ce ku-dun ba-tuku-tuku
74 - ce gur10-gur10-ru-da-zu-ne ce ur5 nam-ba-gam-e-en
75 - ud á-ba-ka gur10-gur10-ra-ab
76 - kídx(KID.IM) 1-e ù zar kécé-da 1-àm
77 - ù 1-e igi-ni-cè zar hu-mu-ra-ab-sá-e
78 - -àm hu-mu-ra-ab-gur10-gur10-re
79 - ce de5-de5-ga-zu ce cu huz na-an-ak-e
80 - ce-gàràdìn-e ce na-an-si-il-si-il-le-e-ne
81 - kíj ud-da-zu ud tur-ra-gin7
82 - usu di4-di4-lá-zu-ne ù ce de5-de5-ga-zu-ne
83 - cid-bi du6-ul-la-ab zar-re-éc nú-a-ab
84 - kíj-zu zid ha-ra-ab-dug4
85 - dabin ce sumun-e tuku-a-ta
86 - ka-gu7-zu-cè ce jic na-ab-ra-ra-an
87 - ce-zar-ra ne-ha-ab
88 - sízkúr ce-zar-ra ud cú-uc-e ha-ra-ab-dug4
89 - ud ce al-èd-dè-en-na-zu-ne
90 - ce lá-lá-zu-ne 0 gij4 ha-ra-an-ak-ak
91 - kislah-zu ki-jar dug4-ga-ab
92 - har-ra-an gur-zu
93 - mar-gíd-da-zu
94 - gud mar-gíd-da-zu mur gu7-bí-ib
95 - cu-kár-zu ha-ra-X X
96 - súr1 du8-a-zu ud 5-àm ha-ba-ne-ha
97 - súr1 ba9-rá-zu-ne níj-ur5-ra du8-ì
98 - ud ce ba9-rá-zu-ne
99 - jic-ba9-rá-zu kuc lá-lá-bi ésír ha-ra-ab-sub6-sub6
100 - gud dúr-dúr-ru-da-zu-ne
101 - ce ba9-rá-zu usu hé-en-dè-gub
102 - ud ce ki ba-e-ni-ús-sa
103 - sízkúr ce nu-nir-ra dug4-ga-ab
104 - ud ce al-lá-e-na-zu
105 - ce ki-ta al-gub-bu-a jéctúg-ga gub-ba-ab
106 - ce DU-a -àm ha-ra-gub-bu-uc
107 - ud ce ba-e-nir-ra jidru-cè nú-a-ab
108 - sízkúr á ud te-en ji6-ba dug4-ga-ab
109 - ud MAC-a-gin7 ce búr-ra-ab
110 - na de5-ga (d)nin-urta dumu (d)en-líl-lá-ke4
111 - (d)nin-urta engar zid (d)en-líl-lá zà-mí-zu dùg-ga-àm
1 - Ud-ul-uru (Old man cultivator) gave advice to his son:
2-7 - When you have to prepare a field, inspect the levees, canals and mounds that have to be opened. When you let the flood water into the field, this water should not rise too high in it. At the time that the field emerges from the water, watch its area with standing water; it should be fenced. Do not let cattle herds trample there.
8-13 - After you cut back the plant bundles and establish the limits of the field, level it repeatedly with a thin hoe weighing two-thirds of a mina . Let a flat hoe erase the oxen tracks, let the field be swept clean. A maul should flatten the furrow bottoms of the area. A hoe should go round the four edges of the field. Until the field is dry it should be smoothed out.
14-22 - Your implements should be ready. The parts of your yoke should be assembled. Your new whip should hang from a nail -- the bindings of the handle of your old whip should be repaired by artisans. The adze, drill and saw, your tools and your strength, should be in good order. Let braided thongs, straps, leather wrappings and whips be attached securely. Let your sowing basket be checked, and its sides made strong. What you need for the field should be at hand. Inspect your work carefully.
23-29 - The plough oxen will have back-up oxen. The attachments of ox to ox should be loose. Each plough will have a back-up plough. The assigned task for one plough is 180 , but if you build the implement at 144 , the work will be pleasantly performed for you. 180 (?) of grain will be spent on each 18 area .
30-34 - After working one plough's area with a plough, and after working the plough's area with a plough, till it with the plough. Harrow once, twice, three times. When you flatten the stubborn spots with a heavy maul, the handle of your maul should be securely attached, otherwise it will not perform as needed.
35-40 - When your field work becomes excessive, you should not neglect your work; no one should have to tell anyone else: 'Do your field work!'. When the constellations in the sky are right, do not be reluctant to take the oxen force to the field many times. The hoe should work everything.
41-45 - When you have to work the field with the seeder-plough, your plough should be properly adjusted. Put a leather sealing on the of your plough. Provide your beam with narrow pegs. Your boards should be spread. Make your furrows.
46-54 - Make eight furrows per of width; the barley will lodge in more closely spaced furrows. When you have to work the field with the seeder-plough, keep your eye on your man who drops the seed. The grain should fall two fingers deep. You should put one of seed per . If the barley seed is not being inserted in the hollow of the furrow, change the wedge of your plough share. If the bindings become loose, tighten them.
55-63 - Where you have made vertical furrows, make slanted furrows, and where you have made slanted furrows, make vertical furrows. Straight furrows will give you edges that are wide enough and nice (?). Your crooked furrows should be straightened out. Make the furrows clear. Plough your portion of field. The clods should be picked out. The furrows should be made wide where the soil is open, and the furrows should be narrower where the soil is clogged: it is good for the seedlings.
64-73 - After the seedlings break open the ground, perform the rites against mice. Turn away the teeth of the locusts. When the plants overflow the narrow bottoms of the furrows, water them with the water of the first seed. When the plants resemble a reed mat, water them. Water the plants when they are heading. When the plants are fully leafed out, do not water them or they will become infected by leaf rust. When the barley is right for husking, water it. It will provide a yield increase of one per .
74-80 - When you have to reap the barley, do not let the plants become overripe. Harvest at the right time. One man is to cut the barley, and one to tie the sheaves; and one before him should apportion the sheaves: three men should harvest for you. The people who gather the barley should not let the grain dry. They should not scatter the grain when it is in the stacks.
81-90 - Your daily work starts at daybreak. Gather your force of helpers and grain gatherers in sufficient number and lay down the sheaves. Your work should be carefully done. Although they have been having stale coarse flour, do not let anyone thresh for your new bread -- let the sheaves have a rest. The rites for the sheaves should be performed daily. When you transport your barley, your barley carriers should handle small amounts (?).
91-95 - Mark the limits of a vacant lot of yours. Establish properly your access paths to it. Your waggons should be in working order. Feed the waggon's oxen. Your implements should be .
96-103 - Let your prepared threshing floor rest for a few days. When you open the threshing floor, smooth its surface (?). When you thresh, the teeth of your threshing sledge and its leather straps should be secured with bitumen. When you make the oxen trample the grain, your threshers should be strong. When your grain is spread on the ground, perform the rites of the grain not yet clean.
104-106 - When you winnow, put an intelligent person as your second winnower. Two people should work at moving the grain around.
107-109 - When the grain is clean, lay it under the measuring stick. Perform the rites in the evening and at night. Release the grain at midday.
110-111 - Instructions of the god Ninurta, the son of Enlil -- Ninurta, faithful farmer of Enlil, your praise be good!
ud-ul-ur11-ru noun Ud-ul-uru
dumu noun child
na noun advice
de5 verb to collect
a-cag4 noun field
dib verb to pass
ég noun embankment
pa5 noun canal
du6 noun (ruin) mound
du8 verb to spread
igi noun eye
kár verb to blow
a-cag4 noun field
a noun water
verb to pour
a noun water
cag4 noun heart
íl verb to raise
ud noun day(light)
a noun water
èd verb to go down or up
a-cag4 noun field
ki noun place
duru5 verb to be wet
èn-nù-ùj noun guard
ak verb to do
ki-ce-er noun limit
tuku verb to have
gud noun bull
súhúb noun designation of ox
jìrì noun foot
zukum verb to tread (down)
ú-ságá11 noun plant bundle
zé-ér verb to tear out
a-cag4 noun field
ki-jar noun area
dug4 verb to say
10 numeral 10
gij4 noun type of axe
sal verb to be thin
/32/ numeral 2/3
ma-na noun weight measure
verb to equal
al-cub noun type of hoe
umbin noun horny outgrowth
gud noun bull
verb to cover
sa noun net
verb to hang
ki noun place
ka noun mouth
sal verb to be thin
ú-tág noun maul?
tag verb to touch
noun neck
a-cag4 noun field
ub noun corner
4 numeral 4
al noun hoe
níjín verb to go around
en-na conj as long as
a-cag4 noun field
cej6 verb to be hot
téc noun unity
sig10 verb to place
cú-kár noun implement
sa noun sinew
gi4 verb to return
cudul noun yoke
á-cítá4 noun equipment
kécé verb to bind
ùsàn noun whip
gibil verb to be new
gag noun peg
verb to hang
ùsàn noun whip
sumun verb to be old
mud noun stump (handle)
verb to hang
dumu noun child
gacam noun (expert) craftsman
dùg verb to be good
ak verb to do
gij4 noun type of axe
bulug noun sharp object
cum-me noun saw
cú-kár noun implement
á noun arm
sáj-kécé noun type of strap
bàr-èd-dè noun type of strap
kà-dù noun wrapping
ùsàn noun whip
saj noun head
ha-za verb to hold
ba-an-du8 noun type of container
káb noun gauge
dug4 verb to say
ak verb to do
á noun arm
kalag verb to be strong
ak verb to do
á-ác noun requirement
a-cag4 noun field
da noun side
jál verb to be (located)
kíj noun work
igi noun eye
kár verb to blow
gud-apin noun plough ox
gud noun bull
dirig verb to be superior
tuku verb to have
gud noun bull
gud noun bull
dur noun bond
tu-lu verb to be loose
apin noun plough
apin noun plough
dirig verb to be superior
éc-gár3èc2-gàr noun work assignment
apin noun plough
1 numeral 1
180 numeral 180
iku noun area measure
za pronoun you (sg.)
144 numeral 144
iku noun area measure
jic noun tree
verb to erect
á noun arm
cag4 noun heart
húl verb to be happy
dím verb to create
18 numeral 18
iku noun area measure
numeral 3
ce noun barley
gur noun capacity measure
jar verb to place
usu noun strength
apin noun plough
1 numeral 1
a-cag4 noun field
bar-dili noun type of plough
ak verb to do
bar-dili noun type of plough
ápín-túg-ságá11 noun type of plough
ak verb to do
túg-gúr verb to use type of plough
jic noun tree
ùr verb to drag
jic noun tree
gi4 verb to return
jic noun tree
pec verb to triple
ki noun place
sumur verb to be angry
níj-gúl noun maul
gág-dág noun type of tool
ak verb to do
mud noun stump (handle)
níj-gúl noun maul
saj noun head
ha-za verb to hold
níj noun thing
jen verb to go
kíj noun work
ak verb to do
kíj noun work
ak verb to do
a-cag4 noun field
kíj noun work
ak verb to do
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
mul-an noun heavenly star
cu noun hand
du7 verb to be perfect
10 numeral 10
á noun arm
gud noun bull
a-cag4 noun field
zìg verb to rise
igi noun eye
gíd verb to be long
al noun hoe
dù-à noun entirety
ak verb to do
a-cag4 noun field
ur11-ru verb to plough
apin noun plough
gu noun (flax) thread
dúb verb to tremble
ká-cú noun part of plough
apin noun plough
im-du5-mu noun leather sealing
cub verb to fall
dam noun part of plough
gag noun peg
sal verb to be thin
cub verb to fall
le-um noun (writing) board
á noun arm
tál verb to be broad
àbsìn noun furrow
gub verb to stand
1 numeral 1
nindan noun length measure
ús verb to be adjacent
àbsìn noun furrow
8 numeral 8
gub verb to stand
àbsìn noun furrow
tuc verb to sit
ce noun barley
noun neck
gíd verb to be long
a-cag4 noun field
ur11-ru verb to plough
noun person
ce-numun noun grain seed
jar verb to place
igi noun eye
jar verb to place
numeral 2
cu-si noun finger
ézíná noun Ezina
cub verb to fall
1 numeral 1
nindan noun length measure
ús verb to be adjacent
1 numeral 1
gij4 noun weight measure
ce noun barley
jar verb to place
tukum-bi conj if
ce-numun noun grain seed
à-tùr noun hollow (of furrow)
suhur verb to insert
níj-kúd noun (plough) wedge
eme-apin-na noun ploughshare
kúr verb to be different
tukum-bi conj if
dur noun bond
tu-lu verb to be loose
dur noun bond
tur verb to be small
ki noun place
àbsìn noun furrow
ur11-ru verb to plough
àbsìn noun furrow
cibir noun shepherd's crook
ur11-ru verb to plough
ki noun place
àbsìn noun furrow
cibir noun shepherd's crook
ur11-ru verb to plough
àbsìn noun furrow
ur11-ru verb to plough
àbsìn noun furrow
noun neck
tu-lu verb to be loose
noun neck
TAGTAG
jar verb to place
àbsìn noun furrow
lúg-gú verb to twist
àbsìn noun furrow
ab-ki-iz noun cleaned furrow
DU verb DU
gáná noun field
kud verb to cut
ur11-ru verb to plough
lag noun lump
ri verb to direct
ki-sahar noun soil deposit
ús verb to be adjacent
àbsìn noun furrow
ra verb to beat
ki-sahar noun soil deposit
ka noun mouth
tab verb to be parallel
àbsìn noun furrow
sig verb to be low
henbur noun shoot
sag9 verb to be good
ud noun day(light)
henbur noun shoot
ki noun place
dar verb to split
sízkúr noun prayer
níj-gílím noun small animal
dug4 verb to say
noun tooth
bir5 noun locust
bal verb to turn over
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
ka noun mouth
sal verb to be thin
àbsìn noun furrow
dirig verb to be superior
a noun water
numun noun seed
saj noun head
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
kíd-má-cág4-gá noun type of mat
gub verb to stand
a noun water
dug4 verb to say
ce noun barley
lillan noun ripe seed
a noun water
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
luh verb to clean
sud verb to be distant
a noun water
dug4 verb to say
sá-má-ná noun leaf rust
gig verb to be ill
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
bir verb to scatter
ak verb to do
du7 verb to be perfect
a noun water
dug4 verb to say
ba-an noun capacity measure (container)
1 numeral 1
sìlà noun capacity measure (container)
ce noun barley
kug-dun noun profit
tuku verb to have
ce noun barley
gur10 verb to harvest
ce noun barley
ur5 pronoun that
gam verb to bow down
ud noun day(light)
á noun (right) time
gur10 verb to harvest
kid7 verb to cut
1 numeral 1
ù conj and
noun person
zar noun sheaf
kécé verb to bind
1 numeral 1
ù conj and
noun person
1 numeral 1
igi noun eye
zar noun sheaf
verb to equal
numeral 3
gur10 verb to harvest
noun person
ce noun barley
de5 verb to collect
ce noun barley
cu noun hand
hu-uz verb to burn
ak verb to do
cè-gàràdìn noun grain stack
ce noun barley
si-il verb to split apart
kíj noun work
ud noun day(light)
ud noun day(light)
tur verb to be small
usu noun strength
di4-di4 verb to be small
ù conj and
noun person
ce noun barley
de5 verb to collect
cid verb to count
dul verb to cover (together)
zar noun sheaf
verb to lie down
kíj noun work
noun (loving) care
zid adj right
dug4 verb to say
dabin noun type of flour
ce noun barley
sumun verb to be old
tuku verb to have
ka-gu7 noun type of bread
noun person
ce noun barley
jic noun tree
ra verb to beat
ce-zar noun sheaf
ne-ha verb to be calm
sízkúr noun prayer
ce-zar noun sheaf
ud noun day(light)
verb to cover
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
èd verb to go down or up
noun person
ce noun barley
verb to hang
0 numeral 30
gij4 noun weight measure
ak verb to do
kislah noun uncultivated land
ki-jar noun area
dug4 verb to say
har-ra-an noun route
gur verb to turn
már-gíd-dá noun cart
gud noun bull
már-gíd-dá noun cart
mur noun fodder
gu7 verb to eat
cú-kár noun implement
XX
XX
súr1 noun threshing floor
du8 verb to spread
ud noun day(light)
5 numeral 5
ne-ha verb to be calm
súr1 noun threshing floor
bad verb to open
níj-úr5-rá noun surface?
du8 verb to spread
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
bad verb to open
noun tooth
jíc-bá9-rá noun threshing sledge
kuc noun skin
verb to hang
ésír noun bitumen
sub6 verb to coat
gud noun bull
tuc verb to sit
noun person
ce noun barley
bad verb to open
usu noun strength
gub verb to stand
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
ki noun place
ús verb to be adjacent
sízkúr noun prayer
ce noun barley
nir verb to winnow
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
verb to hang
noun person
ce noun barley
ki noun place
gub verb to stand
noun person
jéctúg noun ear
gub verb to stand
noun person
ce noun barley
DU verb DU
numeral 2
gub verb to stand
ud noun day(light)
ce noun barley
nir verb to winnow
jidru noun sceptre
verb to lie down
sízkúr noun prayer
á noun (right) time
ud noun day(light)
ten verb to extinguish
ji6 noun night
dug4 verb to say
ud noun day(light)
1/ numeral 1/2
ce noun barley
búr verb to release
na noun advice
de5 verb to collect
nin-urta noun Ninurta
dumu noun child
én-líl noun Enlil
nin-urta noun Ninurta
engar noun farmer
zid adj right
én-líl noun Enlil
zá3-mízà-mì2 noun praise
dùg verb to be good